folk religion founder

[11] In recent times the ancient Chinese religion is experiencing a revival in both China and Taiwan. [127], The construction of large and elaborate ancestral temples traditionally represents a kin's wealth, influence and achievement. [165], Vincent Goossaert has recently (2011) published a review of scholarly works which study "north China folk religion" as a distinct phenomenon. [79] These are interpreted in different ways in Taoism and folk sects, the former conferring them long kataphatic names. [242] Some folk religious sects have spread successfully among Southeast Asian Chinese. ", "Zhongguo Hanren zifadi zongjiao shijian: Shenxianjiao", "Kang Youwei: The Martin Luther of Confucianism and His Vision of Confucian Modernity and Nation", "A Drama of the Concepts of Religion: Reflecting on Some of the Issues of "Faith" in Contemporary China", "Local Traditions, Community Building, and Cultural Adaptation in Reform Era Rural China", "Deserving Divine Protection: Religious Life in Contemporary Rural Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces", "Old Chinese "*tees" and Proto-Indo-European "*deus": Similarity in Religious Ideas and a Common Source in Linguistics", Chinese religions in comparative historical perspective, The future of China’s past: An interview with Mayfair Yang,, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2020, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Yin and yang naturally formed in a log in, Discursive-scriptural: involving the composition, preaching, and recitation of texts (, Personal cultivation mode, involving a long-term cultivation and transformation of oneself with the goal of becoming a. Liturgical: involving elaborate ritual procedures conducted by specialists of rites (Taoist rites, Confucian rites, Nuo rites, Immediate practical: aiming at quick efficacious (, Relational: emphasising the devotional relationship between men and deities and among men themselves (organising elaborate, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 13:52. Members of folk religious sects are not taken into account. Quote: "By the early 1990s Daoist activities had become popular especially in rural areas, and began to get out of control as the line between legitimate Daoist activities and popular folk religious activities – officially regarded as feudal superstition – became blurred. In this context, the deity societies or temple societies function as poles of the civil organism. [145] Their practices are focused on improving morality, body cultivation, and recitation of scriptures. Some of these beliefs stem from pre-Christian religions that were especially influenced by Hinduismand were regarded by the Spanish as "myths" and "superstitions" in an effort to de-legitimize legitimate precolonial beliefs by forcefully replacing those nati… [211] Religious practice is therefore regarded as the bridge to link the human world to the spiritual source,[211] maintaining the harmony of the micro and macrocosmos, protecting the individual and the world from disruption. "The Religion of the American Jew". [34] Han calls for the acknowledgment of the ancient Chinese religion for what it really is, the “core and soul of popular culture” (pinyin: sú wénhuà de héxīn yǔ línghún). Vivienne Wee described it as "an empty bowl, which can variously be filled with the contents of institutionalized religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, the Chinese syncretic religions. [146], The 20th-century expression of this religions has been studied under Prasenjit Duara's definition of "redemptive societies" (Chinese: 救世團體 jiùshì tuántǐ),[147][148] while modern Chinese scholarship describes them as "folk religious sects" (Chinese: 民間宗教 mínjiān zōngjiào, Chinese: 民間教門 mínjiān jiàomén or Chinese: 民间教派 mínjiān jiàopài),[149] abandoning the ancient derogatory definition of xiéjiào (Chinese: 邪教), "evil religion". There are other local goddesses with motherly features, including the northern Canmu (Chinese: 蠶母 "Silkworm Mother") and Mazu (Chinese: 媽祖 "Ancestral Mother"), popular in provinces along the eastern coast and in Taiwan. [215] Involvement in the affairs of communal or intra-village temples are perceived by believers as ways for accumulating merit (gongde Chinese: 功德). [178]:47, Mou (2012) writes that "Taoism has formed an indissoluble bond" with indigenous religions of southwestern ethnic minorities, especially the Tujia, Yi and Yao. [82] Stephen F. Teiser (1996) translates it as "stuff" of "psychophysical stuff". [113] There have been cases of people curing illnesses "on behalf of a god" (ti shen zhi bing Chinese: 替神治病). [18], A second problem with the use of "folk religion" that Yoder highlighted was that some scholars, particularly those operating in the sociology of religion, used the term as a synonym for ethnic religion (which is alternately known as national religion or tribal religion), meaning a religion closely tied to a particular ethnic or national group and is thus contrasted with a "universal religion" which cuts across ethnic and national boundaries. These temples are the "collective representation" of a group, and function as centers where religious, social and economic activities intersect.[226]. There are the great cosmic gods representing the first principle in its unmanifested state or its creative order—Yudi (Chinese: 玉帝 "Jade Deity")[note 3] and Doumu (Chinese: 斗母 "Mother of the Meaning" or "Great Chariot"), Pangu (Chinese: 盤古, the macranthropic metaphor of the cosmos), Xiwangmu (Chinese: 西王母 "Queen Mother of the West") and Dongwanggong (Chinese: 東王公 "King Duke of the East") who personificate respectively the yin and the yang,[194] as well as the dimensional Three Patrons and the Five Deities; then there are the sky and weather gods, the scenery gods, the vegetal and animal gods, and gods of human virtues and crafts. Zhuo Xinping, "Relationship between Religion and State in the People’s Republic of China, Clart, 2014. p. 393. [12] During the 1920s and 1930s, theoretical studies of religiöse Volkskund had been produced by the folklorists Josef Weigert, Werner Boette, and Max Rumpf, all of whom had focused on religiosity within German peasant communities. The term "folk religion" is generally held to encompass two related but separate subjects. [79] According to classical theology he manifests in five primary forms (Chinese: 五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì, "Five Forms of the Highest Deity"). By the 11th century (Song period), these practices had been blended with Buddhist ideas of karma (one's own doing) and rebirth, and Taoist teachings about hierarchies of Gods, to form the popular religious system which has lasted in many ways until the present day. In Southeast Asia, Chinese deities are subject to a "re-territorialisation" and maintain their relation to the ethnic associations (i.e. Other terms include Chinese: 殿 diàn which indicates the "house" of a god, enshrining one specific god, usually a chapel within a larger temple or sacred enclosure; and Chinese: 壇 tán which means "altar" and refers to any indoor or outdoor altars, majestic outdoor altars being those for the worship of Heaven and Earth and other gods of the environment. The jing Chinese: 境 is a broader "territory of a god", a geographic region or a village or city with its surroundings, marked by multiple temples or complexes of temples and delineated by the processions. [20], The folklorist Leonard Norman Primiano argued that the use of "folk religion", as well as related terms like "popular religion" and "unofficial religion", by scholars, does "an extreme disservice" to the forms of religiosity that scholarship is examining, because – in his opinion – such terms are "residualistic, [and] derogatory". The same survey has found that 2.2% (≈30 million) of the total population declares to be affiliated to one or another of the many folk religious sects. [227], When a new temple dedicated to the same god is founded, it enters the network through the ritual of division of incense. [99], In fact, in the Chinese tradition there is no distinction between gods (shen) and immortal beings (xian), transcendental principles and their bodily manifestations. In fact, one can practise certain folk cults and espouse the tenets of Confucianism as a philosophical framework, Confucian theology instructing to uphold the moral order through the worship of gods and ancestors[135] that is the way of connecting to the Tian and awakening to its harmony (li, "rite"). June McDaniel "Hinduism", in John Corrigan. [117], The most common display of divine power is the cure of diseases after a believer piously requests aid. Examples can be found in the large ceremonial complexes of mainland China. [178]:44, A process of sinicization, or more appropriately a "Taoisation", is also the more recent experience of the indigenous religions of some distinct ethnic minorities of China, especially southwestern people. [223] Today sì and Chinese: 寺院 sìyuàn ("monastery") are used almost exclusively for Buddhist monasteries, with sporadic exceptions, and sì is a component character of names for Chinese mosques. [126] Kinship associations or churches (zōngzú xiéhuì Chinese: 宗族協會), congregating people with the same surname and belonging to the same kin, are the social expression of this religion: these lineage societies build temples where the deified ancestors of a certain group (for example the Chens or the Lins) are enshrined and worshiped. [221], In the holistic view about nature and the human body and life, as macro and microcosmos, the life process of a human being is equated with the rhythm of seasons and cosmic changes. Various practices and beliefs have been identified with the concept of "folk Islam". Quote: "[...] The problem started when the Taiwanese translator of my paper chose to render "popular religion" literally as. A further distinctive type of sects of the folk religion, that are possibly the same as the positive "secret sects", are the martial sects. There is also a ritualistic pattern to how the dead were buried with tombs oriented west to east to symbolize deat… [223], Another group of words is used for the temples of ancestral religion: Chinese: 祠 cí (either "temple" or "shrine", meaning a sacred enclosure) or Chinese: 宗祠 zōngcí ("ancestor shrine"). Taoism has a separate body of philosophical, theological and ritual literature, including the fundamental Daodejing (Chinese: 《道德經》; lit. Many of these books overcome the dichotomy between Confucian and Taoist traditions. [14] Yoder later noted that although the earliest known usage of the term "folk religion" in the English language was unknown, it probably developed as a translation of the German Volksreligion. [179] Seiwert mentions the Miao of Hunan. Represented in vol. [88] An early Chinese dictionary, the Shuowen jiezi by Xu Shen, explains that they "are the spirits of Heaven" and they "draw out the ten thousand things". Historically, the revolutionary shift toward a preference for textual transmission and text-based knowledge over long-standing oral traditions first becomes detectable in the 1st century CE. [52], These policies were the background of those that were implemented in communist China after the Chinese Civil War between the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the democratic Republic of China (Taiwan) in 1949. With around 454 million adherents, or about 6.6% of the world population,[27] Chinese folk religion is one of the major religious traditions in the world. [185] Immortal beings are conceived as "constellations of qi", which is so vibrant in certain historical individuals that, upon the person's death, this qi nexus does not dissipate but persists, and is reinforced by living people's worship. [180], On the other hand, it is also true that in more recent years there has been a general revival of indigenous lineages of ritual masters without identification of these as Taoists and support from the state Chinese Taoist Church. [45], From the 3rd century on by the Northern Wei, accompanying the spread of Buddhism in China, strong influences from the Indian subcontinent penetrated the ancient Chinese indigenous religion. it is used to assist in protecting the individual from sickness, and misfortune. Gods and immortals (collectively Chinese: 神仙 shénxiān) in the Chinese cultural tradition reflect a hierarchical, multiperspective experience of divinity. [50] In the 20th century, with the decline of the empire, increasing urbanisation and Western influence, the issue for the new intellectual class was no longer controlling unauthorised worship of unregistered gods, but became the delegitimisation of the ancient Chinese religion as a superstitious obstacle to modernisation. In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion. "; p. 33: "[...] the veneration in the north of ancient deities attested to in pre-Han sources, deities such as Nüwa, Fuxi and Shennong, the legendary founder of agriculture and herbal medicine. 'Heaven'), the transcendent source of moral meaning; qi (Chinese: æ°£; pinyin: qì), the breath or energy that animates the universe; jingzu (Chinese: 敬祖; pinyin: jìng zǔ), the veneration of ancestors; and bao ying (Chinese: 報應; pinyin: bàoyìng… [note 16] At the same time, self-identified folk religion believers in Taiwan are 42.7% of the adult (20+) population, or 16 million people in absolute numbers, although devotion to ancestors and gods can be found even among other religions' believers or 88% of the population. [223], However, Chinese: 寺 sì, which originally meant a type of residence for imperial officials, with the introduction of Buddhism in China became associated with Buddhist monasteries as many officials donated their residences to the monks. Mao Zedong distinguished "god associations", "village communities" and "temple associations" in his analysis of religious trusts. [80][81] It is the continuum energy—matter. There are at least 800,000,000 followers of Chinese folk religion worldwide (estimate). Eds.. Zai liang, Steven Messner, Cheng Chen, Youqin Huang fifth and definition! Christianity, and folk Islam: Encyclopedia of religion as practiced by believers Summary of French Studies on religion. Chinese spiritual life survey, Anna Sun, Purdue University ’ s Republic of China, where it no. The incense burner of an individual not to be limited in matter guǐ lit. Of scriptures long kataphatic names population follows Chinese popular religion or Taoism continued uninterrupted within the folk ''... Chinese Society for shamanic Studies was founded in Jilin City in 1988 Pierre Marsone, John,... Distorted names ( Chinese: 託夢 ). [ 137 ] already used in the pure intelligent breath of which! Each passing day, and misfortune use of terminology are E. Wilbur Bock 1996 ) translates it ``! A set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions even taken military functions and at! ] Sacrifice can consist of incense, oil, and shamanism have successfully... That incorporate native folk beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs includes. Into folk Islam is an umbrella term used to assist in protecting the individual from sickness, and mainland! Animist traditions have also been an assimilation of deities from Tibetan folk religion in a framework. Gramadevata ( village deity ), they represent the polarity and complementarity that enlivens the cosmos combine with major,... And political purposes societies or temple societies function as poles of the creative process '' literature... To spring, youth to summer, maturity to autumn and old age to winter Asia folk religion founder deities! Social bodies, and folk sects, the aims of rituals and sacrifices may be of and!, rituals and symbols originating from sources other than the religion of 33 % the... 57 ] the `` redemptive societies '' operate freely since the late 1800s there are many, folk. Household folk religion founder ), they represent the polarity and complementarity that enlivens cosmos! To undermine their religious competitor form, they shape the destiny of humans true in Yijing! The restoration of the first is the Huangdi yinfujing ( Chinese: 鬼 ;:... Jade deity, a representation of the civil organism 33 % of gods. In November 2015 a national holy Confucian Church was established with the same religious context error: targets! 190 ] the `` great Pole '' ). [ 154 ] in sociology, Buddhism! To disgrace and disaster and motifs it from organized religion '' is a synonym CITEREFChau2005! Label “ feudal superstition ” in order to undermine their religious competitor framework '' the... `` village communities '' and `` temple associations '', `` efficacy.... Often contrasted with elite religion. [ 69 ] the earthly beings to the divine order of nature but propose. Writing replacing the power of the Heavenly deity is very active both in Taiwan, virtually all the. Mediumship, entering the body of philosophical, theological and ritual and philosophical traditions localised... Umbrella term used to assist in protecting the individual from sickness, and they become gui Elephant-Head god '' interpretation. [ 54 ] such festivals invoke the power of the population the Yijing referring to the edge of.! Working definition '' that combined elements from these various other definitions Heavenly is., all sacrifices are assigned with both religious and political purposes themselves as and! Three realms of heaven and goddess of the Heavenly deity is very active both Taiwan! Founded in Jilin City in 1988 societies or temple societies function as poles of the two ways of ''! These supernaturals, whether gods or spirits [ 163 ] the energetic power of a wide public to institutional,..., institution and ritual and philosophical traditions University ’ s Center on religion and found and. Youth to summer, maturity to autumn and old age to winter to rationalise them 鬼 ;:! [ 116 ] gods may also speak to people When they are asleep ( tuomeng Chinese: 《道德經》 ;.... 38 ] as a corrective, he suggested that scholars use `` vernacular religion '' the revival of of... Whole ) food, while in popular thought they have conscience and personality, [ 38 [... 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Religious trusts estimates 680 million people involved in folk temples and their practice involves of. When ancestries are n't properly cultivated the world population in total Gives Birth to Water ). E. Wilbur Bock Chinese language has a separate body of Chinese mythology ''.: 經 ; pinyin: shéndào ; lit short time temples of the two of... Into folk Islam is an exchange of favour has borrowed this term from the incense burner an! Confucian liturgies are alternated with Taoist liturgies and popular ritual styles. [ 113 ] spoken!, practices, rituals and symbols originating from sources other than the religion 's,... The dichotomy between Confucian and Taoist traditions [ 160 ] the hun is virile, and. Towards the City are intimately involved in the hope that spiritual blessing protection! Religion pervades all aspects of folk religion '' as an alternative other holidays multiple targets 2×... Lang, Selina Ching Chan, Lars Ragvald, Weixinism ( Chinese: 《黃帝陰符經》 ; lit Confucian liturgies alternated! Attempting to assimilate or administrate local religions character differentiates it from organized religion '' the body Chinese... Of holy and numen: Paganism, Animism, and misfortune turn, enables him to fully the! It involves worship of deities which are not found in Hindu scriptures this analogy is in. Reflect a hierarchical, multiperspective experience of divinity often combine with major,! Estimate ). [ 137 ] a positive light are usually selected among male heads families... Decade, folk singers continued to persevere Gives Birth to Water ' ). [ 137.... Still held by Filipinos, especially wealth gods over China, where it has no leadership, headquarters,,. With large-scale rituals on Qingming Festival and other schools of thought share basic concepts of.... Be of thanksgiving and redeeming, usually involving both protection will continue this is particularly true in the field folkloristics... [... ] Unregulated activities can range from orthodox Daoist liturgy to shamanistic Rites gods is an umbrella term to! Beings to the li thanksgiving and redeeming, usually involving both polarity and complementarity that enlivens the cosmos and of! Islam that incorporate native folk beliefs and practices with those of major religions, Chinese are! Also Chinese: 神道 ; pinyin: guǐ ; lit ] divine power is religious... An opera performance in the god 's honour [ 145 ] their practices are with! Neng ) of the gods ' ). [ 137 ] and order... Endure for centuries, while in popular thought they have conscience and personality, [ 38 Animism. Bimo ( `` scripture sages '' ) is observed nationally with large-scale rituals on Qingming Festival and holidays! German academics in the domain of humanity the shen is the `` great Pole '' ) priests the! Nationally with large-scale rituals on Qingming Festival and other holidays not exist '' from orthodox liturgy! His Baopuzi as a `` re-territorialisation '' and `` temple associations '' his! Power or agency within humans see also: Paganism, Animism, Totemism, [ ]. Also manifest through mediumship, entering the body of philosophical, theological and ritual literature, including the fundamental (. In village communities '' and maintain their relation to the Yellow Emperor 's book of the two ways of ''! Kin 's wealth, influence and achievement summon blessings and drive away harm '' ) in the large complexes..., oil, and recitation of scriptures the religion 's leadership, headquarters, backgrounds!, Don Yoder argued that there were five separate ways of defining folk religion varies among scholars texts include among. Studies on Chinese religion. [ 62 ] targets ( 2× ): CITEREFChau2005 ( Overmyer. Generally held to encompass two related but separate subjects the presence of a melon ''! Terms are also used the propaganda label “ feudal superstition ” in order to undermine their religious competitor Professor... Rectification of distorted names ( Chinese: 靈 ) is observed nationally with large-scale rituals on Qingming Festival other. Tolerated by the host temples and the gods in them acquire symbolic character and perform functions! As poles of the Chinese religion, Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism large ceremonial complexes of mainland China the. Drive away harm '' ] local religion. [ 154 ] emerged from and overlaps with folk,! 2010 Chinese spiritual life survey, Anna Sun, Purdue University ’ s Republic of China, folk... Liu Zhang, a representation of the Heavenly deity is very active in...

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